Monday, December 31, 2012

Happy New Year 2013

Wishing U all a 
very happy 
New Year 2013 .

Monday, July 2, 2012


MCC of Chronic Dacryo-cystitis is Co.N.S ( Coagulase Negative Staphlococci) >> Staph aureus > Strep. Pneumoniae.

MCC of Acute Dacryocystitis - Staph. aureus.

Cohen-Woods Classification of Lactic Acidosis

Classification of Some Causes of Lactic Acidosis (Cohen & Woods, 1976)

Type A Lactic Acidosis : Clinical Evidence of Inadequate Tissue Oxygen Delivery

- Anaerobic muscular activity (eg sprinting, generalised convulsions)

- Tissue hypoperfusion (eg shock -septic, cardiogenic or hypovolaemic; hypotension; cardiac arrest; acute heart failure; regional hypoperfusion esp mesenteric ischaemia; malaria8,9)

- Reduced tissue oxygen delivery or utilisation (eg hypoxaemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, severe anaemia)

Type B Lactic Acidosis: No Clinical Evidence of Inadequate Tissue Oxygen Delivery

type B1 : Associated with underlying diseases (eg ketoacidosis, leukaemia, lymphoma, AIDS)

type B2: Assoc with drugs & toxins (eg phenformin, cyanide, beta-agonists, methanol, nitroprusside infusion, ethanol intoxication in chronic alcoholics, anti-retroviral drugs)

type B3: Assoc with inborn errors of metabolism (eg congenital forms of lactic acidosis with various enzyme defects eg pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency)

Note: This list does not include all causes of lactic acidosis

Ref :

Sunday, July 1, 2012


Posterior approach blepharoptosis surgery, via the transconjunctival route, was probably the first method of surgery employed to shorten the levator muscle. In 1923 Blaskovics first described his technique of  extensive dissection of the levator muscle (LPS) from its surrounding structures prior to its resection.

Thursday, April 5, 2012


1. Most Common location of Accessory Spleen(Splenenculi) - Splenic Hilum

2. Most Common Primary benign lesion of spleen - Cavernous Hemangioma.

3. Most Common primary malignant lesion of spleen is - Lymphoma

4. Most Commonly ruptured intra-abdominal organ in the setting of trauma - Spleen
     (Why? Ans: due to its complex ligamentous attachments and spongy parenchymal consistency)

5.Most common infection involving Spleen in Immunocompromised - Candidiasis.

6. Most Common organ involved in Sickle Cell Disease - Spleen

7. Most Common cause of Splenic Vein Thrombosis - Secondary to Pancreatitis.


Wednesday, April 4, 2012


HCC tumors are generally chemoresistant, and only one
drug—sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor—
is currently approved for advanced HCC patients.


You can get some of the e-books from here.

Wednesday, March 28, 2012

AIPGMEE 2009 Questions and Answers : ANATOMY

(answers given below)
Note: Topics that have been discussed in this site has been hyperlinked in the questions itself.

1. Artery in the anatomical snuff box is..
a. Radial. A
b. Brachial.A
c. Ulnar
d. Interosseous

2. Superior Gluteal Nerve supplies all of the following muscles, except
a. Gluteus Minimus
b. Gluteus Maximus
c. Tensor Fascia Lata
d. Gluteus Medius

3. All of the following are composite muscles except:
a. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
b. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
c. Pectineus
d. Biceps Femoris

4. All of the following are branches are branches of Splenic Artery, except:
a. Short gastric Artery
b. Hilar Branches
c. Right Gastroepiploic  Artery
d. Arteria Pancreatica Magna

5. Contents of Deep Perineal Pouch include all of the following except:
a. Dorsal Nerve of Penis
b. Bulbourethral glands
c. Root of penis
d. Sphincter Urethrae

6. Urogenital Diaphragm is made up of the following things, except
a. Deep Transerve Perenei muscle
b. Pereneal membrane
c. Colle’s fascia
d. Sphincter Urethrae

7. Lymphatics from the spongy urethra drain into the following lymph nodes
a. Superior Inguinal Lymph nodes
b. Inferior Inguinal Lymph Nodes
c. Deep Inguinal Lymph nodes
d. Sacral nodes

8. Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve is a branch of:
a. Mandibular Nerve
b. Lingual Nerve
c. Maxillary Nerve
d. Facial nerve

9. The parasympathetic secretomotor fibres to Parotid Gland traverse through the following          except :
a. Otic Ganglion
b. Tympanic Plexus
c. Greater petrosal nerve
d. Auriculotemporal nerve

10. Which of the following is not true about the Trochlear Nerve:
a. Has longest intracranial course
b. Supplies ipsilateral superior oblique muscle
c. Only cranial nerve that arises from the dorsal aspect of brainstem
d. Enters the orbit throught the superior orbital fissure outside the annulus of Zinn

11. Area that lies immediately lateral to the anterior perforating substance is :
a. Orbital gyrus
b. Uncus
c. Optic Chaisma
d. Limen Insulae

12. Medulla Oblongata is supplied by all except :
a. Anterior spinal artery
b. Bulbar artery
c. Basilar artery

13. Which of the following structures is insensitive to pain:
a. Dural sheath surrounding vascular sinuses
b. Choroid plexuses
c. Falx cerebri
d. Middle meningeal artery

14. All of the following about Sternberg’s Canal are correct, excepting:
a. Located anterior and medial to the foramen rotundum
b. Located posterior and lateral to foramen rotundum
c. Represents persistent craniopharyngeal canal
d. Cause of intrasphenoidal meningocoele

15. Closure of the neural tube begins at which of the following levels
a. Cervical Region
b. Thoracic Region
c. Cephalic end
d. Caudal end

16. Within which part of a gastric gland, are the chief cells located
a. Gastric Pit
b. Neck
c. Isthmus
d. Fundus

16(2).Chief cells in the stomach are most abundant in 
a. Fundus
b. Body
c. Antrum 
d. Pylorus

17. All of the following statements are true regarding Paneth cells, except:
a. Rich in Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
b. Rich in Zinc
c. Contain lysozyme
d. Foamy appearance

18. GALT ( Gut Associated Lymphatic Tissue) is primarily located in:
a. Lamina Propria
b. Submucosa
c. Muscularis
d. Serosa

Answers : AIPGMEE 2009 ANATOMY

1.A   2.B   3.A   4.C   5.C   6.C    7.C    8. B    9.C   10.B     11.D    12.B   13.B  14.B   15.A   16.D (and A FOR 16(2)  ).   17.D    18.A

Thursday, March 22, 2012

Gluteal Muscles - Nerve Supply AIPGMEE 2009

Superior Gluteal Nerve supplies
1. Gluteus Medius
2. Gluteus Minimus
3. Tensor Fascia Lata

Inferior Gluteal nerve supplies
1. Gluteus Maximus

N. to Quadratus Femoris supplies
   - Inferior Gamellus and Quadratus Femoris

N.To Obturator Internus supplies
 - Superior Gamellus and the obvious O.Internus.

Anatomical Snuff Box


When the thumb is fully extended the tendon is separated from extensor pollicis brevis by a triangular depression or fossa, the so-called 'anatomical snuff-box'. 

Bony structures can be felt in the floor of this fossa by deep palpation. In proximal to distal order they are the radial styloid, the smooth convex articular surface of the scaphoid, the trapezium, and the base of the first metacarpal.

The tendons of the APL and EPB bound the anatomical snuff box anteriorly(laterally), and the tendon of the EPL bounds it posteriorly(Medially).

 1. Cephalic Vein
 2. Radial Artery 
 3. Superficial Radial Nerve
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