Monday, July 2, 2012


MCC of Chronic Dacryo-cystitis is Co.N.S ( Coagulase Negative Staphlococci) >> Staph aureus > Strep. Pneumoniae.

MCC of Acute Dacryocystitis - Staph. aureus.

Cohen-Woods Classification of Lactic Acidosis

Classification of Some Causes of Lactic Acidosis (Cohen & Woods, 1976)

Type A Lactic Acidosis : Clinical Evidence of Inadequate Tissue Oxygen Delivery

- Anaerobic muscular activity (eg sprinting, generalised convulsions)

- Tissue hypoperfusion (eg shock -septic, cardiogenic or hypovolaemic; hypotension; cardiac arrest; acute heart failure; regional hypoperfusion esp mesenteric ischaemia; malaria8,9)

- Reduced tissue oxygen delivery or utilisation (eg hypoxaemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, severe anaemia)

Type B Lactic Acidosis: No Clinical Evidence of Inadequate Tissue Oxygen Delivery

type B1 : Associated with underlying diseases (eg ketoacidosis, leukaemia, lymphoma, AIDS)

type B2: Assoc with drugs & toxins (eg phenformin, cyanide, beta-agonists, methanol, nitroprusside infusion, ethanol intoxication in chronic alcoholics, anti-retroviral drugs)

type B3: Assoc with inborn errors of metabolism (eg congenital forms of lactic acidosis with various enzyme defects eg pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency)

Note: This list does not include all causes of lactic acidosis

Ref :

Sunday, July 1, 2012


Posterior approach blepharoptosis surgery, via the transconjunctival route, was probably the first method of surgery employed to shorten the levator muscle. In 1923 Blaskovics first described his technique of  extensive dissection of the levator muscle (LPS) from its surrounding structures prior to its resection.

Thursday, April 5, 2012


1. Most Common location of Accessory Spleen(Splenenculi) - Splenic Hilum

2. Most Common Primary benign lesion of spleen - Cavernous Hemangioma.

3. Most Common primary malignant lesion of spleen is - Lymphoma

4. Most Commonly ruptured intra-abdominal organ in the setting of trauma - Spleen
     (Why? Ans: due to its complex ligamentous attachments and spongy parenchymal consistency)

5.Most common infection involving Spleen in Immunocompromised - Candidiasis.

6. Most Common organ involved in Sickle Cell Disease - Spleen

7. Most Common cause of Splenic Vein Thrombosis - Secondary to Pancreatitis.


Wednesday, April 4, 2012


HCC tumors are generally chemoresistant, and only one
drug—sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor—
is currently approved for advanced HCC patients.
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